::: Eco Tourism Development In Pakistan :::

About Sindh

Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the “Mehran” and “Bab-ul-Islam”, The Door to Islam”), because Islam was firstly introduced into South Asia via Sindh. Different cultural and ethnic groups also reside in Sindh, including Urdu-speaking Muslim refugees who migrated to Pakistan from India upon independence, as well as immigrants from other provinces after independence.  

Geography and climate

Sindh is located on the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west. Geographically it is the third largest province of Pakistan, stretching about 579 km from north to south and 442 km (extreme) or 281 km (average) from east to west, with an area of 140,915 square kilometers (54,408 sq mi) of Pakistani territory. Sindh is bounded by the Thar Desert to the east, the Kirthar Mountains to the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. In the centre is a fertile plain around the Indus River.  

Climate of Sindh

Sindh is situated in a subtropical region; it is hot in the summer and cold in winter. Temperatures frequently rise above 46 °C (115 °F) between May and August, and the minimum average temperature of 2 °C (36 °F) occurs during December and January. The annual rainfall averages about seven inches, falling mainly during July and August. The southwest monsoon wind begins to blow in mid-February and continues until the end of September, whereas the cool northerly wind blows during the winter months from October to January. Sindh lies between the two monsoons — the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean and the northeast or retreating monsoon deflected towards it by the Himalayan mountains — and escapes the influence of both. The average rainfall in Sindh is only 6–7 in (15–18 cm) per year. The region’s scarcity of rainfall is compensated by the inundation of the Indus twice a year, caused by the spring and summer melting of Himalayan snow and by rainfall in the monsoon season. These natural patterns have recently changed somewhat with the construction of dams and barrages on the Indus River. Sindh is divided into three climatic regions: Siro (the upper region, centered on Jacobabad), Wicholo (the middle region, centered on Hyderabad), and Lar (the lower region, centered on Karachi). The thermal equator passes through upper Sindh, where the air is generally very dry. Central Sindh’s temperatures are generally lower than those of upper Sindh but higher than those of lower Sindh. Dry hot days and cool nights are typical during the summer. Central Sindh’s maximum temperature typically reaches 43–44 °C (109–111 °F). Lower Sindh has a damper and humid maritime climate affected by the southwestern winds in summer and northeastern winds in winter, with lower rainfall than Central Sindh. Lower Sindh’s maximum temperature reaches about 35–38 °C (95–100 °F). In the Kirthar range at 1,800 m (5,900 ft) and higher at Gorakh Hill and other peaks in Dadu District, temperatures near freezing have been recorded and brief snowfall is received in the winters.  

Flora and fauna

Flora   The province is mostly arid with scant vegetation except for the irrigated Indus Valley. The dwarf palm, Acacia Rupestris (kher), and Tecomella undulata (lohirro) trees are typical of the western hill region. In the Indus valley, the Acacia nilotica (babul) (babbur) is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the Indus banks. The Azadirachta indica (neem) (nim), Zizyphys vulgaris (bir) (ber), Tamarix orientalis (jujuba lai) and Capparis aphylla (kirir) are among the more common trees. Mango, date palms, and the more recently introduced banana, guava, orange, and chiku are the typical fruit-bearing trees. The coastal strip and the creeks abound in semi-aquatic and aquatic plants, and the inshore Indus delta islands have forests of Avicennia tomentosa (timmer) and Ceriops candolleana (chaunir) trees. Water lilies grow in abundance in the numerous lake and ponds, particularly in the lower Sindh region.  


Among the wild animals, the Sindh ibex (sareh), Blackbuck, wild sheep (urial or gadh) and black bear are found in the western rocky range, where the Leopard and Asiatic Cheetah are now rare. The pirrang (large tiger cat or fishing cat) of the eastern desert region is also disappearing. Deer occur in the lower rocky plains and in the eastern region, as do the striped hyena (charakh), jackal, fox, porcupine, common gray mongoose, and hedgehog. The Sindhi phekari, ped lynx or Caracal cat, is found in some areas. In the Kirthar national park of sind, there is a project to introduce tigers and Asian elephants. Phartho (hog deer) and wild bear occur particularly in the central inundation belt. There are a variety of bats, lizards, and reptiles, including the cobra, lundi (viper), and the mysterious Sindh krait of the Thar region, which is supposed to suck the victim’s breath in his sleep. Crocodiles are rare and inhabit only the backwaters of the Indus, eastern Nara channel and Karachi backwater Besides a large variety of marine fish, the plumbeous dolphin, the beaked dolphin, rorqual or blue whale, and a variety of skates frequent the seas along the Sind coast. The pallo (sable fish), a marine fish, ascends the Indus annually from February to April to spawn. Although Sindh has a semi arid climate, through its coastal and riverine forests, its huge fresh water lakes and mountains and deserts, Sindh supports a large amount of varied wildlife. Due to the semi arid climate of Sindh The left out forests support average population of jackals and snakes. The national parks established by the Government of Pakistan in collaboration with many organizations such as World Wide Fund for Nature and Sindh Wildlife Department support a huge variety of animals and birds. The Kirthar National Park in the Kirthar range spreads over more than 3000 km² of desert, stunted tree forests and a lake. The KNP supports Sindh Ibex , wild sheep (urial) and black bear along with the rare leopard. There are also occasional sightings of The Sindhi phekari, ped lynx or Caracal cat. There is a project to introduce tigers and Asian elephants too in KNP near the huge Hub dam lake. The Indus river dolphin is among the most endangered species in Pakistan and is found in the part of the Indus river in northern Sindh. Hog deer and wild bear occur particularly in the central inundation belt. There are also varieties of bats, lizards, and reptiles, including the cobra, lundi (viper). Some unusual sightings of Asian Cheetah occurred in 2003 near the Balochistan Border in Kirthar Mountains. The pirrang (large tiger cat or fishing cat) of the eastern desert region is also disappearing. Deer occur in the lower rocky plains and in the eastern region, as do the striped hyena (charakh), jackal, fox, porcupine, common gray mongoose, and hedgehog. Between July and November when the monsoon winds blow onshore from the ocean, giant Olive Ridley turtles lay their eggs along the seaward side. The turtles are protected species. After the mothers lay and leave them buried under the sands the SWD and WWF officials take the eggs and protect them until they are hatched to protect them from predators. Crocodiles are rare and inhabit only the backwaters of the Indus, the eastern Nara channel and some population of Marsh crocodiles can be very easily seen in the waters of Haleji Lake near Karachi. Besides a large variety of marine fish, the plumbeous dolphin, the beaked dolphin, rorqual or blue whale, and a variety of skates frequent the seas along the Sind coast. The pallo (sable fish), though a marine fish, ascends the Indus annually from February to April to spawn. The rare Houbara Bustard also find Sindh’s warm climate suitable to rest and mate.  

Cuisine of Sindh



  • Sindhi Curry – (chick pea flour and vegetables like lady finger, potato and eggplant. • Seyal Mani (Cooked Chappati in green sauce with tomato, coriander and spices). • Seyal Dab-roti (variation of above, but instead of Chappati, use bread) • Seyal Phulko • Bhugi Bhaji • Seyal Bhaji (mixed vegetables cooked with onion garlic paste) • Sabu dal chawar ( yellow daal with rice) • Koki (thick chapati can be made with onions and coriander or just plain salt and pepper) • Loli/Lolo/Lola (a thick chappati with ghee, onion and coriander). • Loli Du-dh (as above, but served with yogurt. Some Sindhis will eat Loli with pickles, but many Sindhis don’t consider it good form to mix yogurt and pickles). This is a popular dish served at breakfast or brunch. • Pappad (a crisp and thin snack. Sindhi will generally eat this after a meal to digest food and in particular after an oily meal). • Dhodo Chutney (A thick roti with garlic paste and served with mint chutney) • Sai Bhaji (a spinach based gravy, sai means green – the colour of spinach) • Bugha Chawar (a browned rice) • Bhugal Bheeha (lotus root in thick curry) • Dhangi Fulko (moong beans with roti) • Curry Chawal (a tomato curry eaten with white rice – served with aloo took, a potato cutlet) • Besan ji Bhaji (vegetable made of gram flour) • Bhugal Teewarn (a mutton dish) • Jera & Bhukiyoo (Fried liver, Kidney of goat) • Dal Tikkhar (daal yellow pulses) cooked in gravy eaten with crisp fried very thin matthi) • Tikhi Dal khichdi (thin yellow pulse served with variation of rice) • Bhugge Chawal (rice cooked in flavoured spices beige/ golden brown in colour with vegetable assortments) • Pava (goats legs) • Pakkwan Dal (lentil and solid crunchy puri) • Curry Chawal (It’s Kathi Curry eaten with Rice • Phote waro Tivan (Lamb meat in cardamom) • Keemo (ground lamb meet) • Seyal Pallo (pomfret fish in garlic sauce)  

Desserts or Sweets or Drink

  • Thadal • Varo (Indian sweet made with pistachio, almonds or other nuts) • Tosh (Sweet made with wheat atta and Sugar chaashni, looks like stick) • Dothi (Sweet made with Wheat atta and Sugar chaashni, looks like big peda) • Geara (Called emarti in North India) • Moomthal (Indian sweet) • Khi-r-ni (hot drink made with milk with flavours of cardamoms and saffron) • Sherbet • Mesu Tikki (Sweet made with Gram flour and in light orange or yellow color) • falooda (vermiclli and ice on top of ice cream) • Boorani (A yellow colored sweet made by processing flowers) • Johnnie Walker Black Label is considered the sindhi alcoholic beverage of choice. Many sindhis choose to drink this with Coca-Cola or Diet Coke   Pickles   • carrot pickle • mango pickle • mix fruit pickle • green chilli pickle • Murbo ( sweet grated mango in sugar syrup)     Food for Special Occasions   • There are food that are served during special occasions, such as during Diwali a Bahji called Chiti-Kuni is made with seven vegetabels. If some gets chicken pox and after it is gone, it is common to make an offering and make ‘mitho lolo’. • Vermicelli is served on both Eids. On special religious occasions, mitho lolo, accomapanied with milk is given to the poor. • Mitho lolo is also served with chilled buttermilk called Matho on various occasions.

Major cities

  • Ghotki • Dadu • Hala • Daharki • Diplo • Hyderabad • Jacobabad • Jamshoro • Karachi • Kashmore • Khairpur • Kotri • Larkana • Matli • Mehar • Mirpurkhas • Mithi • Mehrabpur • Moro • Nasarpur • Nawabshah • Naushahro Feroze (Padidan) • Shahdadkot • Raharki • Ranipur • Ratodero • Sanghar • Sehwan • Sekhat • Shikarpur • Sobhodero • Sukkur • Rohri • Tando Allahyar • Tando Adam Khan • Umarkot  

Arts and crafts

  The traditions of Sindhi craftwork reflect the cumulative influence of 5000 years of invaders and settlers, whose various modes of art were eventually assimilated into the culture. The elegant floral and geometrical designs that decorate everyday objects—whether of clay, metal, wood, stone or fabric—can be traced to Muslim influence. Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for ajraks, pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles, and silk cloths which, in design and finish, are matchless. The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth (soosi), camel fittings, metalwork, lacquered work, enamel, gold and silver embroidery. Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and khes. Other popular crafts include the earthenware of Johi, the metal vessels of Shikarpur, the relli, embroidery and leather articles of Tharparkar, and the lacquered work of Kandhkot. Prehistoric finds from archaeological sites like Mohenjo-daro, engravings in various graveyards, and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs have provided ample evidence of the people’s literary and musical traditions. Modern painting and calligraphy have also developed in recent times. Some young trained men have taken up commercial art.    

Cultural heritage

Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft that has evolved over the centuries. Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala, a town some 30 kilometers from Hyderabad. Hala’s artisans manufacture high-quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, and blue pottery. Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand woven textiles including khadi, susi, and ajraks are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala’s handicraft. Sindh is known the world over for its various handicrafts and arts. The work of Sindhi artisans was sold in ancient markets of Armenia, Baghdad, Basra, Istanbul, Cairo and Samarkand. Referring to the lacquer work on wood locally known as Jandi, T. Posten (an English traveler who visited Sindh in the early 19th century) asserted that the articles of Hala could be compared with exquisite specimens of China. Technological improvements such as the spinning wheel (charkha) and treadle (pai-chah) in the weaver’s loom were gradually introduced and the processes of designing, dyeing and printing by block were refined. The refined, lightweight, colourful, washable fabrics from Hala became a luxury for people used to the woolens and linens of the age. The Ajrak has existed in Sindh since the birth of its civilization. The color blue is predominantly used for ajraks. Sindh was traditionally a large producer of indigo and cotton cloth and both used to be exported to the Middle East. The ajrak is a mark of respect when it is given to an honored guest or friend. In Sindh, it is most commonly given as a gift at Eid, at weddings, or on other special occasions like homecoming. The Rilli, or patchwork quilt, is another Sindhi icon and part of the heritage and culture. Most Sindhi homes have a set of Rillis—one for each member of the family and a few spare for guests. The Rilli is made with small pieces of cloth of different geometrical shapes sewn together to create intricate designs. They may be used as a bedspread or a blanket, and are often given as gifts to friends and guests.   Many women in rural Sindh are skilled in the production of caps. Sindhi caps are manufactured commercially on a small scale at New Saeedabad and Hala New. These are in demand with visitors from Karachi and other places; however, these manufacturing units have a limited production capacity. Sindhi people began celebrating Sindhi Topi Day on December 6, 2009 to preserve the historical culture of Sindh by wearing Ajrak and Sindhi topi.  

Sindhi language

  Sindhi is spoken by about 25 million people in the province of Sindh. The largest Sindhi-speaking city is Hyderabad, Pakistan. It is an Indo-European language, related to Kutchi, Gujarati and other Indo-European languages prevalent in the region with substantial Persian, Turkish and Arabic loan words. In Pakistan it is written in a modified Arabic script, in fact most Sindhi’s are predominantly Muslim  

Places Of Interest


  •  Bhutto family Mausoleum
  •  Bakri Waro Lake, Khairpur

  • Bhambore

  •  Chaukandi Tombs, Karachi

  •  Forts at Hyderabad and Umarkot

  •  Gorakh Hill in Dadu

  •  Haleeji Lake

  •  Kahu-Jo-Darro near Mirpurkhas

  •  Keenjhar lake Thatta

  •  Kirthar National Park

  •  Kot Diji Fort, Kot Diji

  •  Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad

  •  Makli Hill, Asia’s largest necropolis, Makli, Thatta

  •  Manchar Lake

  •  Minar-e-Mir Masum Shah, Sukkur

  •  Mohatta Palace Museum, Karachi

  •  Rani Bagh, Hyderabad

  •  Ranikot Fort near Sann

  •  Ruins of Mohenjo-daro & Museum near Larkana

  •  Pakka Qill Hyderabad

  •  Sadhu Bela Temple near Sukkur

  •  Shahjahan Mosque, Thatta

  •  Shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Bhit Shah

  •  Shrine of Shahbaz Qalander in Sehwan Shairf, Dadu

  •  Sukkur Barrage, Sukkur

  •  Talpurs’ Faiz Mahal Palace, Khairpur

  •  The Sindh Museum Hyderabad

  •  Tharparker

  •  Nangarparker

  •  Karwanjhar

  •  Kaasbo

  •  Mitthi

  •  Sukkar

  •  Sukkur Barrage

  •  Masoom Shah Minar

  •  Faiz Palace

  •  Tomb of Shah Khair uddin Jilani

  •  Rohri

  •  Shrine of Warambarak

  •  Arror ruins of historical city near Sukkur

  •  Hair of Hazrat Mohammad (P.B.U.H)

  •  Shrine of 7 Kanwari Sisters

  •  Old Masjid Built in 1584

  • Mahrano Mahari

Places Of Attraction in Karachi

  •  Mazar-e- Quaid
  •  Kemari

  •  Thatta

  •  Mohatta Palace Museum

  •  Wazir Mansion

  •  Park Towers

  •  National Museum of Pakistan

  •  Karachi Cricket Clubs

  •  Aladdin Park

  •  Habib Bank     Plaza

  •  Frere Hall

  •  Clifton Beach

  •  Peninsula of Manora

  •  Three Swords Monument

  •  Rehri Goth near Karachi

  •  PAF Museum

  •  Bahria Museum

  •  Safari Park

  • Bin Qasim Park

  • Hussainabad Food Street

  • Burns Road Food Street

Places Of Interest

  • Bhutto family Mausoleum

  • Bakri Waro Lake, Khairpur

  • Bhambore

  • Chaukandi Tombs, Karachi

  • Forts at Hyderabad and Umarkot

  • Gorakh Hill in Dadu

  • Haleeji Lake

  • Kahu-Jo-Darro near Mirpurkhas

  • Keenjhar lake Thatta

  • Kirthar National Park

  • Kot Diji Fort, Kot Diji

  • Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad

  • Makli Hill, Asia’s largest necropolis, Makli, Thatta

  • Manchar Lake

  • Minar-e-Mir Masum Shah, Sukkur

  • Mohatta Palace Museum, Karachi

  • Rani Bagh, Hyderabad

  • Ranikot Fort near Sann

  • Ruins of Mohenjo-daro & Museum near Larkana

  • Pakka Qill Hyderabad

  • Sadhu Bela Temple near Sukkur

  • Shahjahan Mosque, Thatta

  • Shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Bhit Shah

  • Shrine of Shahbaz Qalander in Sehwan Shairf, Dadu

  • Sukkur Barrage, Sukkur

  • Talpurs’ Faiz Mahal Palace, Khairpur

  • The Sindh Museum Hyderabad

  • West bank of the River Indus

  • Tharparker

  • Nangarparker

  • Karwanjhar

  • Kaasbo

  • Mitthi

  • Sukkar

  • Sukkur Barrage

  • Masoom Shah Minar

  • Faiz Palace

  • Tomb of Shah Khair uddin Jilani

  • Rohri

  • Shrine of Warambarak

  • Arror ruins of historical city near Sukkur

  • Hair of Hazrat Mohammad (P.B.U.H)

  • Shrine of 7 Kanwari Sisters

  • Old Masjid Built in 1584

  • Mahrano Mahari

Places Of Attraction in Karachi

  • Mazar-e- Quaid

  • Kemari

  • Thatta

  • Mohatta Palace Museum

  • Wazir Mansion

  • Park Towers

  • National Museum of Pakistan

  • Karachi Cricket Clubs

  • Aladdin Park

  • Habib Bank     Plaza

  • Frere Hall

  • Clifton Beach

  • Peninsula of Manora

  • Three Swords Monument

  • Rehri Goth near Karachi

  • PAF Museum

  • Bahria Museum

  • Safari Park

  • Bin Qasim Park

  • Hussainabad Food Street

  • Burns Road Food Street

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